Knee surgery

You may need surgery when your knee has structural damage. You may also need it if your knee pain has not responded to other pain relief methods for structural damage or other conditions, like osteoarthritis. If you choose surgery, an anesthesiologist will prevent you from feeling pain during the operation. As specialists in pain management, anesthesiologists also play a key role in pain relief and recovery after surgery. This post-surgical pain relief is essential for effective participation in physical therapy and rehabilitation..

Knee Surgery in Bogotá

Knee surgery is often used to treat different conditions that can cause knee pain . While nonsurgical methods are often attempted for initial treatment, there are situations where knee surgery becomes the recommended or necessary treatment. Learn about the different types of knee surgery and the conditions that are best treated with each.

Knee surgery
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Knee Surgery in Colombia

Types of Surgeries, Surgical Treatments and Knee Procedures


Meniscectomy is the official name of the surgery that involves the removal of a part of the cartilage of the meniscus of the knee joint. The meniscus is a shock-absorbing cartilage wedge that sits between the ends of the bone to provide cushioning and support.. Smaller meniscus tears can usually be trimmed to relieve symptoms of a torn meniscus.

Meniscus repair

A meniscus repair is a surgical procedure done to repair a damaged meniscus. Meniscus repair can restore normal knee anatomy and has a better long-term prognosis when successful. Nevertheless, meniscus repair is a more important surgery than meniscectomy. Recovery is longer and, due to limited blood supply to the meniscus, repair is not always possible.

Lateral release

The kneecap moves up and down the end of the femur in a groove of cartilage. The patella can be pulled out of this groove or it can even be dislocated from the groove, causing pain when bending the knee joint. A lateral release is performed to loosen the ligaments that pull the patella out of the groove.

Side release used to be commonly performed for people with vague symptoms of knee pain. In recent years, surgeons have been much more careful in determining which patients might be suitable candidates for this surgical procedure. There are a number of possible complications associated with a lateral release, including knee instability, increased patellofemoral pain (front of the knee) and a reduction in the knee's ability to fully extend.

Escrow split

A plica is a remnant of tissue left over from fetal development. In early development, his knee was divided into separate compartments. Compartment dividers are gradually lost over time, but there are some remains.

When this remnant tissue is most prominent, it is called escrow. When the escrow is irritated, It's called plica syndrome. A plica resection is performed to remove irritated tissue.

Meniscus transplant

Meniscus transplantation involves placing a donor meniscus (the graft is obtained from someone who recently passed away) in a person who had the meniscus removed. The ideal candidate for a meniscus transplant is someone who has undergone a menisectomy and later develops knee pain. Surgery is generally reserved for use in people under the age of 50 years whose body mass index, o IMC, is less than 35. 3

Meniscus transplantation is not done for an acute meniscus tear. Conversely, performed when removal of the entire meniscus has caused persistent knee pain.

ACL reconstruction

The Anterior cruciate ligament , o LCA, is one of the four main ligaments of the knee. The ACL is important for the stability of the knee, and people who injure their ACL often complain of symptoms of the knee giving way under them. Therefore, many ACL tear patients choose to undergo surgical treatment for this injury.

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are often associated with sports activities, where they occur most frequently. Nevertheless, ACL injuries can also affect people who perform normal daily activities.


Microfracture is a surgical procedure performed to address areas of cartilage damage within the knee joint.. Microfracture triggers a healing response so that new cartilage is formed where there was previously a hole in the cartilage.

The problem with microfracture is that it only works on small damaged areas. What's more, scarring does not develop in the same way as normal cartilage. Because of this, until the 42% of people who have a microfracture procedure will require additional surgery in the future.

Knee Surgery Procedure

Patellar tendon repair / quadriceps

The patellar tendon and quadriceps tendon in the front of the knee joint can be injured, causing a loss of strength in the extension of the leg.. When the tendon tears, patients have difficulty straightening the knee joint.

Treatment of a ruptured patellar tendon or quadriceps tendon is almost always a surgical repair.. Without a surgical repair, not only can it be difficult to straighten the knee, but even walking normally is a challenge.

Partial knee replacement

A partial knee replacement is an option for certain types of knee arthritis. When cartilage loss is limited to a small part of the knee joint, it may be possible to replace only the worn part of the joint. Nevertheless, in cases where arthritis is more widespread, a total knee replacement will be necessary.

Partial knee replacements are becoming more common as robot-assisted surgery has also become more prevalent. The knee joint is generally divided into three compartments, and each of these three compartments (medial, lateral and patellofemoral) can be replaced with a partial knee replacement.

In general terms, partial knee replacement is considered if you have more than 60 years, weighs less than 180 pounds (82 kilograms) and cannot fully flex or extend the leg due to degeneration and / or joint deformity.

Total knee replacement surgery

When a knee replacement , bone and cartilage are removed from the end of the femur (femur) and the top of the shin (tibia). This is done using precise instruments to create surfaces that can perfectly fit the implant.. A metal and plastic knee replacement implant is then placed to function as a new knee joint..

Depending on the condition of the cartilage under the kneecap, patella surface can also be replaced. Total knee replacement is very successful, and approximately the 90% of implant recipients report good long-term results.

If your knee is badly damaged by arthritis or an injury, simple activities may be difficult, like walking or climbing stairs. You may even start to feel pain while sitting or lying down..

If non-surgical treatments such as medications and the use of walking supports are no longer helpful, you may want to consider total knee replacement surgery. Joint replacement surgery is a safe and effective procedure to relieve pain, correct the leg deformity and help you resume your normal activities.

Knee replacement surgery was performed for the first time in 1968. Since then, improvements in surgical materials and techniques have greatly increased its effectiveness. Total knee replacements are one of the most successful procedures in all of medicine. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, on 2017, more than 754,000 knee replacements.

Whether you've started exploring treatment options or you've already decided to have a total knee replacement, this article will help you understand more about this valuable procedure.

Knee Ligament Reconstruction

There is another type of treatment for damaged knees, called ligament reconstruction.
Ligaments are like rubber bands that surround the knee and give us flexibility while limiting dangerous movements. If the ligaments are torn (what happens in sport), there will be pain when the patient tries to turn, round, or twist your leg.
There are four main ligaments in the knee:

  1. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL);
  2. Posterior cruciate ligament (LCP);
  3. medial collateral ligament (LCM);
  4. and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL).

Ligaments can be surgically repaired using a piece of healthy tendon from the patient's own body or from a donor.

Torn meniscus treatment

A torn meniscus is not an injury seen only in athletes. Knee cartilage becomes thinner and weaker as we age. Any sudden action can trigger a meniscal injury.
Many patients continue with their daily activities without realizing that they have suffered a meniscal tear.. If the knee continues to hurt and you feel a popping or locking of the joint, the best thing is that the doctor examines you.
Treatment depends on the type of meniscal injury. Some can be treated conservatively, with rest, ice and medicine. Other tears can be relieved by surgery, to trim or repair torn cartilage.

Knee Surgery in bogota

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Knee replacement involves creating an artificial joint to replace damaged bone and cartilage.. The vast majority of patients say that this treatment significantly reduced pain levels and restored their quality of life.

Knee replacement is recommended in patients with severe pain when walking, climbing stairs, get up or sit, or those with moderate to severe pain at rest; for a person with a bowlegged deformity; or patients who do not respond to other treatments such as cortisone injections.

Meanwhile he 90% of knee replacement patients report a drastic reduction in pain and improved mobility, knee replacement surgery is not for everyone. Each patient is unique, but your surgeon probably wouldn't recommend running a marathon. Instead, you may be able to swim, play golf or tennis, drive a car, riding a bike or dancing without pain.

The first step in deciding if you are a candidate for knee replacement, is imaging tests to reveal the type and extent of damage to the bones, cartilage and ligaments. Your orthopedic surgeon will explain what might be causing the pain., and together, you can decide on a treatment plan.

Frequently Asked Questions about: Knee surgery

Common Questions and Answers about Knee Surgery

The knee is the largest joint in the body and healthy knees are required to perform most daily activities.

The knee is made up of the lower end of the thigh bone (femur), the upper end of the shin (tibia) and the kneecap (ball joint). The ends of these three bones are covered with articular cartilage, a soft substance that protects the bones and allows them to move easily within the joint.

The menisci are located between the femur and the tibia. These C-shaped wedges act as “shock absorbers” that cushion the joint.

Large ligaments hold the femur and tibia together and provide stability. Long thigh muscles give strength to the knee.

All remaining surfaces of the knee are covered by a thin lining called the synovium.. This membrane releases a fluid that lubricates the cartilage, reducing friction to almost zero in a healthy knee.

Usually, all these components work in harmony. But illness or injury can disrupt this harmony, causing pain, muscle weakness and reduced function.

The most common cause of disability and chronic knee pain is arthritis. Although there are many types of arthritis, most knee pain is caused by just three types: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and post-traumatic arthritis.

  • Osteoarthritis. This is a type of arthritis of “wear and tear” age related. In general, occurs in people of 50 years or more, but it can also occur in younger people. The cartilage that cushions the bones of the knee softens and wears away. Later, the bones rub against each other, causing pain and stiffness in the knee.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. This is a disease in which the synovium surrounding the joint becomes inflamed and thickened.. This chronic inflammation can damage cartilage and eventually cause cartilage loss., pain and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of a group of disorders called “inflammatory arthritis”.
  • Postraumatic arthritis. This can follow a serious knee injury.. Fractures of the bones around the knee or tears of the knee ligaments can damage articular cartilage over time., causing knee pain and limiting its function.

A knee replacement (also called knee replacement) could be more accurately called “rejuvenation” of the knee because only the surface of the bones is replaced.

There are four basic steps to a knee replacement procedure:

  • Prepare the bone. Damaged cartilage surfaces at the ends of the femur and tibia are removed along with a small amount of underlying bone.
  • Place the metal implants. The extracted cartilage and bone are replaced with metal components that recreate the surface of the joint.. These metal parts can be cemented or “snap” on the bone.
  • Resurface the kneecap. The lower surface of the patella (ball joint) is cut and repaired with a plastic button. Some surgeons do not repair the kneecap, depending on the case.
  • Insert a spacer. A medical grade plastic spacer is inserted between the metal components to create a smooth gliding surface.

The decision to undergo a total knee replacement should be a cooperative one between you., his family, your primary care physician and orthopedic surgeon. Your doctor can refer you to an orthopedic surgeon for a complete evaluation and determine if you could benefit from this surgery..

When surgery is recommended

There are several reasons why your doctor may recommend a knee replacement.. People who benefit from total knee replacement often have:

  • Severe pain or stiffness in the knee that limits daily activities, Like walking, climb stairs and sit and get up from chairs. It may be difficult to walk more than a few blocks without significant pain and it may be necessary to use a cane or walker.
  • Moderate or severe knee pain while resting, either day or night
  • Chronic swelling and inflammation of the knee that does not get better with rest or medicine
  • Knee deformity: an inward or outward bend of the knee.
  • Not improving substantially with other treatments such as anti-inflammatory drugs, cortisone injections, lubricant injections, physical therapy or other surgeries

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery that involves making a small cut in the skin above the knee., insert a small light and use small instruments to diagnose and treat knee problems, including:

  • remove or repair torn menisci, which are part of the cartilage in the knee joint
  • repair of a torn cruciate ligament within the knee
  • trimming broken pieces of articular cartilage
  • remove loose bodies, which are small pieces of cartilage or bone that float inside the knee
  • remove an inflamed joint lining

This is an operation in which the surgeon cuts, reshapes and repositiones the bones to take some weight off the damaged part of the knee.

Sometimes, surgeons perform this procedure to help correct a broken bone that has not healed properly.

A knee replacement is major surgery, so it is usually only recommended if other treatments, What physiotherapy or injections of steroids , have not reduced pain or improved mobility.

You may be offered a knee replacement if:

  • have severe pain, swelling and stiffness in the knee joint and its mobility is reduced
  • your knee pain is so severe that it interferes with your quality of life and sleep
  • Daily tasks, like going shopping or getting out of the bathroom, they are difficult or impossible.
  • you feel depressed from pain and lack of mobility
  • you can't work or have a social life

You will also need to be well enough to cope with both a major operation and subsequent rehabilitation..

There are other types of surgery that are an alternative to knee replacement, but the results are often not as good in the long run. Your doctor will discuss the best treatment option with you.. Other types of surgery may include:

  • Arthroscopic lavage and debridement: a small telescope is inserted (arthroscopy) in the knee, which is then washed with saline to clean any bone or cartilage fragments.
  • osteotomía: the surgeon cuts the shin and realigns it so that its weight is no longer supported by the damaged part of the knee
  • mosaicoplasty: a keyhole operation that involves the transfer of hard cartilage plugs, along with some underlying bone from another part of the knee, to repair the damaged surface

In general, you will stay in the hospital for 3 a 5 days, but recovery times may vary.

Once you can be discharged, your hospital will give you advice on how to care for your knee at home. You will first need to use a frame or crutches and a physical therapist will teach you exercises to help strengthen your knee..

Most people can stop using walking aids about 6 weeks after surgery and start driving after 6 a 8 weeks.

Full recovery can take up to 2 years as scar tissue heals and muscles are restored with exercise. A very small number of people will still have some pain after 2 years.

Meniscectomy is a procedure used to correct a torn meniscus.. If you experience pain and swelling in your knee, but does not have the range of motion limitations that indicate arthritis, you may have a meniscus tear. Your meniscus is the shock-absorbing piece of cartilage that sits over the tibia and serves as a cushion for impact when you walk or run..

During this procedure, a part of the torn meniscus is removed by arthroscopy. Since only small incisions are made to allow the small camera and surgical tools to be inside the knee, there will be no scars and recovery will be fast.

If your torn meniscus has an adequate blood supply, a torn meniscus may not need to be removed. In that case, we recommend a meniscus repair. This procedure is also performed arthroscopically.. What's more, leaving the entire meniscus in place mitigates the risk of arthritis later in life.

A meniscus transplant is recommended for clients who have previously had a meniscectomy but are now experiencing more knee pain. This procedure, which is performed by arthroscopy, uses part of a donor patient's meniscus to replace the damaged or arthritic part of their meniscus.

While the microfracture may look like an injury, it is actually a knee procedure that is done quite frequently. Performed on knees with damaged cartilage within the joint. This procedure is only done when only part of the cartilage inside the knee is damaged.. To determine the extent of cartilage damage within your knee, we will take an x-ray of the affected knee.

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Schedule your Appointment with him Dr. Danilo Velandia to be able to provide you with information and guidance about our Procedures. All the necessary information will be explained to you from: how to prepare for surgery, what will happen to you at the Clinic or Hospital, how you should take care of yourself at the end of the Procedure, as well as the changes that must occur in your lifestyle.

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I broke my left rotator cuff while falling. I tried to put up with it for almost a year with medications, physical therapy and basically it didn't help . I was scheduled for surgery elsewhere. I did not like the atmosphere, so I looked for another opinion. I am happy to have done it !! all nursing staff, ambulatory surgical units, postoperative care and now the final results: I have no pain I have a full range of motion, I have strength and continue to develop it while following a very detailed therapy regimen. I can only recommend Dr.. Danilo Velandia and elite staff, professional, personal, warm and friendly.

Camila cardenas Orthopedics and Traumatology Patient

I am so impressed and grateful for the care that Dr.. Danilo, that every time I get a chance to give a positive review, I can not resist! The level of care he provides far exceeds that of any other doctor I have ever seen. I am so impressed. He patiently explained every detail of the treatment plan for my broken Knee to me and really took the time to listen and answer all the questions I had.. If I ever have to refer someone I know to an orthopedic surgeon, I will insist that they see Dr.. Danilo Velandia. There is no one else I would turn to if I needed one again. Thank you Dr. Danilo for the great care you have given me!

Raul Cespedes Orthopedics and Traumatology Patient

I have seen Dr.. Danilo Velandia a couple of times in Bogotá and I'll be back, it's been great so far. No pressure to rush to surgery, great advantage. Gives good information and options from the first day to the surgery process. All staff are friendly and helpful highly qualified, He has been the most proactive and helpful medical person I have dealt with and I am really very happy. Your diligence has made sure you get the help you need, and it even helped me avoid forgetting things. Thank you very much indeed! I am very happy with my visits with him. Highly recommended Dr. Danilo Velandia and his team of professionals!

Pedro Mutis Orthopedics and Traumatology Patient

My experience as a patient of Dr.. Daniel has been extremely positive. Performed surgery on my right shoulder, completely relieving my symptoms. He patiently listened to my concerns, answered my many questions and provided insightful information, but not too technical. The doctor. Danilo made himself available both before and after my surgery to address my pre-surgery nerves and my post-surgery expectations.. He was always professional, patient and attentive. I feel very lucky that when I could no longer suffer with the symptoms, my husband, who recommended me to Dr.. Danilo Velandia.

Maria lopez Orthopedics and Traumatology Patient

After playing competitive soccer for several years, I broke my anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus. I was very nervous about the long process of surgery and recovery really is a life changing process, I thought I would lose everything since sport is my life and my passion, but Dr.. Danilo Velandia was very helpful, informative and reassuring, he really knew how to handle the situation. My surgery went smoothly and my recovery went according to plan. The doctor. Danilo was present every step of the way and showed his medical competence, as well as his natural compassion, Thank you very much and very grateful, I have been able to continue with my day to day.

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